Study cracks how the brain processes emotions.

Visual, gustatory and cross-modal affect codes. Multivariate searchlight results revealed subregions coding modality-specific (visual = red, taste = yellow) and modality-independent (green) valence. Anderson et al 2014.

Study cracks how the brain processes emotions. Researchers have discovered that fine-grained patterns of neural activity within the orbitofrontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with emotional processing, act as a neural code which captures an individual’s subjective feeling. The findings provide insight into how the brain represents the human's innermost feelings, what neuroscientists are calling the last frontier of neuroscience, and upend the long-held view that emotion is represented in the brain simply by activation in specialized regions for positive or negative feelings. Thoughts health innovators?

Although feelings are personal and subjective, the human brain turns them into a standard code that objectively represents emotions across different senses, situations and even people, reports a new study by Cornell University.

The researchers discovered that fine-grained patterns of neural activity within the orbitofrontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with emotional processing, act as a neural code which captures an individual’s subjective feeling.

Their findings provide insight into how the brain represents the human’s innermost feelings, what neuroscientists call the last frontier of neuroscience , and upend the long-held view that emotion is represented in the brain simply by activation in specialized regions for positive or negative feelings.  The study found that if a people derive similar pleasure from sipping a fine wine or watching the sun set, or have ‘something in common’, it is because they share similar fine-grained patterns of activity in the orbitofrontal cortex.

It appears that the human brain generates a special code for the entire valence spectrum of pleasant-to-unpleasant, good-to-bad feelings, which can be read like a ‘neural valence meter’ in which the leaning of a population of neurons in one direction equals positive feeling and the leaning in the other direction equals negative feeling.

For the study, the researchers presented participants with a series of pictures and tastes during functional neuroimaging, then analyzed participants’ ratings of their subjective experiences along with their brain activation patterns.  The team found that valence was represented as sensory-specific patterns or codes in areas of the brain associated with vision and taste, as well as sensory-independent codes in the orbitofrontal cortices (OFC), suggesting, the authors say, that representation of the human internal subjective experience is not confined to specialized emotional centers, but may be central to perception of sensory experience.

They also discovered that similar subjective feelings, whether evoked from the eye or tongue, resulted in a similar pattern of activity in the OFC, suggesting the brain contains an emotion code common across distinct experiences of pleasure (or displeasure), they say. Furthermore, these OFC activity patterns of positive and negative experiences were partly shared across people.

Despite how personal feelings feel, the evidence suggests that human brains use a standard code to speak the same emotional language.  Albeit this ‘code’ can have an infinite set of environmental, genetic and intrinsic inputs, making each one of us uniquely coded, uniquely conditioned.  Thus each one of these infinite set of ‘inputs’ will result in unique ‘outputs’, namely our personality, our psyche… Us.

Source:  Cornell University

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