The FDA has approved the world’s first zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test that can help determine if a person has type 1 diabetes and not another type of diabetes. When used with other tests and patient clinical information, the test may help some people with type 1 diabetes receive timely diagnosis and treatment for their disease.
Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes diagnosed in children and adolescents, but in some instances it may also develop in adults. People with the disease produce little or no insulin because their immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that converts sugars (glucose) in food to the energy the body needs. People with type 1 diabetes must inject insulin to regulate their blood glucose because proper regulation is critical to lower their risk of long-term complications such as blindness, kidney failure and cardiovascular disease.
The immune system of many people with type 1 diabetes produces ZnT8Ab, but patients with other types of diabetes (type 2 and gestational) do not. The KRONUS Zinc Transporter 8 Autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) ELISA Assay detects the presence of the ZnT8 autoantibody in a patient’s blood. Early treatment of type 1 diabetes is important in helping to prevent further deterioration of insulin producing cells. This test can help patients get a timely diagnosis and help start the right treatment sooner.
The KRONUS ZnT8Ab ELISA Assay was reviewed through the de novo premarket review pathway, a regulatory pathway for some low- to moderate-risk medical devices that are not substantially equivalent to an already legally marketed device.
The agency reviewed data from a clinical study of 569 blood samples, 323 from patients with diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 246 samples from patients diagnosed with other kinds of diabetes, other autoimmune diseases, and other clinical conditions. The test was able to detect the ZnT8 autoantibody in 65 percent of the samples from patients with diagnosed type 1 diabetes and incorrectly gave a positive result in less than two percent of the samples from patients diagnosed with other disease.
A negative result from the test does not rule out a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The test should not be used to monitor the stage of disease or the response to treatment.