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Researchers identify molecule that protects women’s eggs.

A new study from the University of Gothenburg has identified the key molecule ‘Greatwall kinase’ which protects women’s eggs against problems that can arise during the maturation process.  The study is published in The Journal of Cell Biology.

In order to be able to have a child, a woman needs eggs that can grow and mature. One of these eggs is then fertilised by a sperm, forming an embryo. During the maturation process, the egg needs to go through a number of stages of reductional division, called meiosis. If problems occur during any of these stages, the woman can become infertile. Around 10-15% of all women experience fertility problems, caused by factors such as genetics, environment and age.

Using genetically modified mouse models the team has now discovered that the molecule Greatwall kinase is of great importance in order for the eggs of the female mouse to be able to complete the first phase and move on to the second meiotic division during the maturation of the egg. When Greatwall kinase is removed from the egg, not all the stages can be completed. Instead, the egg enters an interphase with an abnormal DNA structure and problematic cell cycles. These problems make females infertile.

The team summise that Greatwall kinase is important in the human egg maturation process and is important in the regulation of the cell cycle. The group aims to carry out studies on human eggs as the next stage.

The team state that if they discover that there are women whose eggs do not mature due to levels of Greatwall kinase being too low, then they can inject the molecule into the egg.  Hopefully, the maturation process will thereby be corrected, and eventually the woman may be able to have children, thus reversing the infertile state.

Source:  University of Gothenburg

 

PP2A activities and Ensa protein levels during oocyte maturation.  A representative experiment for obtaining data. Before treatment with inhibitors, all of the oocytes contained a nucleus (arrowheads) and a PB1. Immunofluorescence of OoMastl-/-oocytes treated with inhibitors indicating formation of spindles (S) and chromosome condensation. All experiments were repeated at least three times, and representative results are shown.  Mastl is required for timely activation of APC/C in meiosis I and Cdk1 reactivation in meiosis II.  Kaldis et al 2014.
PP2A activities and Ensa protein levels during oocyte maturation. A representative experiment for obtaining data. Before treatment with inhibitors, all of the oocytes contained a nucleus (arrowheads) and a PB1. Immunofluorescence of OoMastl-/-oocytes treated with inhibitors indicating formation of spindles (S) and chromosome condensation. All experiments were repeated at least three times, and representative results are shown. Mastl is required for timely activation of APC/C in meiosis I and Cdk1 reactivation in meiosis II. Kaldis et al 2014.

 

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