UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have demonstrated that whole-genome sequencing can be used to identify patients’ risk for hereditary cancer, which can potentially lead to improvements in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and care. This is the first study that has used whole-genome sequencing to evaluate a series of 258 cancer patients’ genomes to improve the ability to diagnose cancer-predisposing mutations. The opensource study is published in the journal EBioMedicine.
Whole-genome sequencing is a new genetic tool that can determine more of a person’s DNA sequence than ever before. The current study shows that nearly 90 percent of clinically identified mutations were confidently detected and additional cancer gene mutations were discovered, which together with the decreasing costs associated with whole-genome sequencing means that this method will improve patient care, as well as lead to discovery of new cancer genes.
Presently the researchers help patients assess their risk for many types of cancer, including kidney, skin, lung, breast, ovarian, colon, endocrine and prostate cancers. If a known genetic predisposition to cancer is found, the team counsel the patient about the best ways to detect early cancers or, better yet, prevent cancers from ever forming.
About 5 to 10 percent of all cancers are caused by known inherited gene mutations. These mutations are passed down from generation to generation. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most common cause of hereditary breast cancer. BRCA gene mutations are best known for their breast cancer risk, but they also cause increased risk for ovarian, prostate, pancreatic, and other cancers. In addition, there are many different genes, including ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53, that are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer, and researchers are continually discovering additional genes that may affect cancer predisposition.
In this study, researchers developed new methods to analyze the large amount of data generated by whole-genome sequencing. Specifically, the team devised a method to compare the group of patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations to a group of patients without BRCA mutations. All expected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were detected in the BRCA group, with at least 88.6 percent of mutations confidently detected. In contrast, different cancer gene mutations were found in the cohort without BRCA mutations.
The team state that the results demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing can detect new cancer gene mutations in non-BRCA ‘mystery’ patients, demonstrating the added value whole-genome sequencing brings to the future cancer clinic, although further investigation is needed in order to be able to interpret the precise clinical implications of the mutations found.
Mystery patients are those who have a strong family history for cancer but after standard genetic testing, no genetic diagnoses are made. In the current study, sequencing allowed the researchers to discover novel candidate cancer gene mutations in these patients.
Source: UT Southwestern Medical Center
Michelle Petersen is the founder of Healthinnovations, having worked in the health and science industry for over 21 years, which includes tenure within the NHS and Oxford University. Healthinnovations is a publication that has reported on, influenced, and researched current and future innovations in health for the past decade.
Michelle has been picked up as an expert writer for Informa publisher’s Clinical Trials community, as well as being listed as a blog source by the world’s leading medical journals, including the acclaimed Nature-Springer journal series.
Healthinnovations is currently indexed by the trusted Altmetric and PlumX metrics systems, respectively, as a blog source for published research globally. Healthinnovations is also featured in the world-renowned BioPortfolio, BioPortfolio.com, the life science, pharmaceutical and healthcare portal.
Most recently the Texas A&M University covered The Top 10 Healthinnovations series on their site with distinguished Professor Stephen Maren calling the inclusion of himself and his team on the list a reflection of “the hard work and dedication of my students and trainees”.
Michelle Petersen’s copy was used in the highly successful marketing campaign for the mega-hit film ‘Jumanji: The Next Level, starring Jack Black, Karen Gilian, Kevin Hart and Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson. Michelle Petersen’s copywriting was part of the film’s coverage by the Republic TV network. Republic TV is the most-watched English language TV channel in India since its inception in 2017.
An avid campaigner in the fight against child sex abuse and trafficking, Michelle is a passionate humanist striving for a better quality of life for all humans by helping to provide traction for new technologies and techniques within healthcare.