Diseases related to tobacco smoking have been shown to kill approximately half of long-term smokers when compared to average mortality rates faced by non-smokers. Giving up smoking has huge benefits … Continue Reading Brain circuit that supports smoking cessation identified.
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with compulsive drinking, loss of control over intake, and emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence from the drug. Special emphasis has … Continue Reading Researchers target neurons involved in compulsive drinking to reverse alcohol dependence in rats.
More than one-quarter of the US population qualify as excessive alcohol consumers. Studies show that alcohol use impacts several lung diseases, with heavy consumption associated with poor clinical outcomes. Now, … Continue Reading Large-scale study shows that excessive alcohol consumption impacts breathing.
In alcoholism and addictive drugs repeated exposure triggers glutamatergic and GABAergic plasticity in many neuronal populations. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS), a brain region critically involved in addiction, contains medium spiny … Continue Reading Researchers identify and successfully activate neurons that tell the brain to stop drinking.
Approximately 16% of adults in the United States report drug use, however, not everyone who experiments with drugs becomes an addict. Environmental and societal factors play a role in addiction … Continue Reading First ever study identifies epigenetic markers that influence addiction in animal model.
It is known that repeated cocaine-use results in the development of behavioural sensitization, accompanied by a decrease in excitatory synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, glial cells in … Continue Reading Microglia-based mechanism that reduces effect of cocaine on the brain identified.
Excessive alcohol-use is the third leading risk factor for disease following tobacco and blood pressure. The most important include peripheral neuropathy, brain damage, alcoholic liver disease, and nutritional and metabolic … Continue Reading Hormone and neurotransmitter systems disturbed in alcoholics’ brains.
With more than 25% of high school seniors reporting recent use and 6.5% of 12th graders being daily users, marijuana (MJ) is the most frequently used illicit substance among adolescents. … Continue Reading Neuroimaging shows that young starting age of marijuana causes arrested neurodevelopment.
The motivation for natural rewards such as food, sex and exercise, and also of drugs such as nicotine, relies on neurons in the brain’s reward system, based in a brain … Continue Reading Molecular ‘switch’ reduces nicotine’s effect on the brain in animal model.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is defined as a failure to control one’s impulses to excessively use online gaming. IGD results in serious negative outcomes, such as decreased physical and mental … Continue Reading Neuroimaging identifies brain differences in compulsive video game players.
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that increases levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in brain circuits regulating pleasure and movement. Normally, dopamine is released by neurons in these … Continue Reading Researchers begin to map brain regions and circuits changed by cocaine-use.
Morphine mediates its euphoric and analgesic effects by acting on the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). MOR belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors whose signaling efficiency is controlled by the … Continue Reading Researchers identify key morphine regulator in the brain.
For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. Numerous studies suggest that … Continue Reading Researchers identify specific neuron-type responsible for alcoholism.
The NIAAA defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration to 0.08 or above. This typically occurs when men consume five or more … Continue Reading Levels of known biomarker for alcohol consumption validated for binge-drinking.
A team from the University of South Carolina have been studying one of the fundamental biomolecules contributing to human addiction, the mu-opioid receptor. It’s a protein in the human body … Continue Reading Researchers begin to map the neurogenetics of susceptibility in addiction.
One of the major challenges of cocaine addiction is the high rate of relapse after periods of withdrawal and abstinence. Now, new research from McGill University and Bar Ilan University reveals … Continue Reading Study shows most epigenetic changes happen in cocaine addiction during the periods of withdrawal.