In early evolution gene duplication is an important event that resulted in new genes and genetically novel organisms. A classic example is the small soluble protein ferredoxin, an iron-sulfur protein … Continue Reading Researchers insert a synthetic primordial protein into a living organism.
Communication between the gut and brain is thought to control a cornucopia of systems within the body. The gut-brain information highway, also known as the gut-brain axis, is regulated by … Continue Reading Neuron-like cells provide nervous system with window into the gut.
Vital to our bodies, preproglucagon otherwise known as GCG peptides act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate. Although the actions … Continue Reading Neurons successfully regulate appetite and glucose levels in mice.
It is known that around the body, fat deposits contain many mature fat cells and small numbers of stem cells. These stem cells can differentiate into more fat cells, however, … Continue Reading Hormone that controls maturation of fat stem cells identified.
When exposed to cold, clusters of cells within the body’s white fat become beige, a colour change which reflects the creation of more energy-producing mitochondria, cellular components that enable cells … Continue Reading Study shows that fat cells which amplify nerve signals in response to cold also affect blood sugar.
About 8% of Americans have type 2 diabetes, and another 25% of the population is at risk because of obesity. Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that represents an … Continue Reading Study identifies new pathway in insulin resistance.
The rapid rise in obesity and associated spread of type 2 diabetes represent an enormous challenge for society, with no efficient and safe medicines to prevent or stop this development … Continue Reading Astrocytes shown to control sugar in the brain, as well as neurons.
Obesity is a global health problem that poses a major risk factor for life-threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Recent studies have identified specific loci associated with … Continue Reading Study maps a molecular link between insulin-sensitivity and obesity.
Obesity has become a major health threat, affecting more than half a billion people worldwide in 2014. In particular, obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance, hypertension, coronary heart disease … Continue Reading Epigenetic modification which raises obesity risk and predicts fatty liver identified.
Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. In 2014, there were over 600 million people classified as obese, making up 13% of the global population. Researchers have long known … Continue Reading Researchers stimulate brown-fat in animals to improve weight-management and glucose control.
It is known that Parkinson’s disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disease, has genetic causes in 15% of cases. It has been shown that premature aging of dopaminergic neurons in the … Continue Reading Study shows how defective gene prematurely ages neurons in Parkinson’s disease.
Mitochondria are spherical or rod-shaped organelles found within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, referred to as the powerhouse of the cell as they act as the site for the production … Continue Reading Decades-long mystery solved of how mitochondria’s energy currency is maintained.
Macrophages, also known as scavenger cells, are immune cells which are part of the innate immune system and differentiate from monocytes. They circulate in the bloodstream and upon differentiation, invade … Continue Reading New study refutes textbook theory on macrophage metabolism.
The human brain has a prodigious demand for energy, it uses 20 to 30% of the body’s energy budget. In the course of normal aging, in people with neurodegenerative diseases … Continue Reading Researchers use dietary supplement to re-energize aging brains in animal model.
It is known that glucose is an essential fuel for brain energy metabolism as well as oxygen. Functional activation of neurons is normally associated with increases in the local cerebral … Continue Reading Neuroimaging shows genetics and environment affect different regions of brain.
Mitochondria are the cellular powerplant and, reliant on nutrient status, it is known that Vitamin B turns mitochondria into cellular builders. Through vitamin B, mitochondria produce substances to make ingredients … Continue Reading Mitochondria dysfunction shown to cause vitamin b imbalance and genetic changes.