Viruses have evolved to be highly effective vehicles for delivering genes into cells, with these vectors becoming critical in delivering genes to treat disease or label neurons. As viral vectors … Continue Reading Novel viral vectors deliver useful cargo to neurons throughout the brain and body.
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the brain, mediating various forms of synaptic plasticity and is implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about … Continue Reading Previously unknown method of neurotransmission identified.
The brain controls all functions in the body and interprets information from the outside world with intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory all governed by the central nervous system. The central … Continue Reading Researchers identify the control mechanism of synapse formation.
Controlling a single brain chemical expands the window for learning language and music in an animal model.
Learning a language or recognizing music is usually a breeze for children, however, this capacity dramatically declines with age. Now, a study from researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital … Continue Reading Controlling a single brain chemical expands the window for learning language and music in an animal model.
The age-old feeling of hunger, driven by negative energy balance, elicits the craving and consumption of food, and whilst this survival response is in part mediated by neurons in the … Continue Reading Two new networks of neurons identified in appetite regulation.
Excessive alcohol-use is the third leading risk factor for disease following tobacco and blood pressure. The most important include peripheral neuropathy, brain damage, alcoholic liver disease, and nutritional and metabolic … Continue Reading Hormone and neurotransmitter systems disturbed in alcoholics’ brains.
It is known that the loss or dysfunction of islet β cells in the pancreas results in an imbalance in blood glucose homeostasis, leading to the development of type 2 … Continue Reading Researchers identify new links between nicotine and type 2 diabetes.
In the brain, patterns of neural activity are perfectly balanced. The interplay between activating and inhibitory neurotransmitters ensures that the level of activity stays within the physiological range. Neuronal degeneration … Continue Reading Researchers begin to map neuroprotective pathway after epileptic seizure.
The motivation for natural rewards such as food, sex and exercise, and also of drugs such as nicotine, relies on neurons in the brain’s reward system, based in a brain … Continue Reading Molecular ‘switch’ reduces nicotine’s effect on the brain in animal model.
The serotonin receptors, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. … Continue Reading Researchers identify previously unknown subtypes of 5HT neurons.
Dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia is known to cause severe motor dysfunctions such as slowness of movement, or bradykinesia, as seen in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine binds D1 and D2 receptors … Continue Reading Study identifies the cause of slowness of movement in Parkinson’s disease.
Glutamate is an amino acid with very different functions. In the pancreas, it modulates the activity of the pancreatic ß-cells responsible for insulin production, whereas in the brain it is … Continue Reading Study verifies long-standing hypothesis that glutamate is brain’s energy-source.
White adipose tissue, or fat tissue, serves as a storage depot for energy-rich triglycerides. In times of need this lipid storage can be released as part of an adaptive response … Continue Reading Researchers identify previously unknown neural mechanism responsible for fat breakdown.
Antidepressants are recommended as a first-line treatment of severe depression and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression that persists after conservative measures such as cognitive therapy. Experts recommend against their … Continue Reading Study maps structural brain changes caused by antidepressants.
Synaptic mitochondria are thought to be critical in supporting neuronal energy requirements at the synapse, and bioenergetic failure at the synapse may impair neural transmission and contribute to neurodegeneration. However, … Continue Reading Researchers link impaired mitochondria and a loss of ATP to neurodegeneration.
For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. Numerous studies suggest that … Continue Reading Researchers identify specific neuron-type responsible for alcoholism.