Memorizing and predicting aversive or unpleasant events is a critical function of neural circuits responsible for survival and emotional well-being. There is much interest in how the brain creates the … Continue Reading Brain pathways of aversion identified.
It is known that rigidity and loss of muscle function associated with Parkinson’s is linked to a depletion of dopamine in the part of the brain that controls movement. However, … Continue Reading Gene mutation identified for early onset of Parkinson’s disease in Caucasians.
Stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases are expected to reach clinical trials soon. One major task en route to the clinic is to generate standardized good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade human-pluripotent … Continue Reading Breakthrough in the production of dopamine neurons for Parkinson’s disease.
The motivation for natural rewards such as food, sex and exercise, and also of drugs such as nicotine, relies on neurons in the brain’s reward system, based in a brain … Continue Reading Molecular ‘switch’ reduces nicotine’s effect on the brain in animal model.
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that increases levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in brain circuits regulating pleasure and movement. Normally, dopamine is released by neurons in these … Continue Reading Researchers begin to map brain regions and circuits changed by cocaine-use.
Dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia is known to cause severe motor dysfunctions such as slowness of movement, or bradykinesia, as seen in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine binds D1 and D2 receptors … Continue Reading Study identifies the cause of slowness of movement in Parkinson’s disease.
For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. Numerous studies suggest that … Continue Reading Researchers identify specific neuron-type responsible for alcoholism.
Much like a community’s network for garbage handling, cells also have garbage sites called lysosomes, where proteins, which are functioning badly because of age or other reasons, go for degradation … Continue Reading Study links two proteins that help cells eliminate trash to Parkinson’s disease.
Prions are proteins in which the complex molecular three-dimensional folding process has simply gone astray. For reasons not yet understood, the misfolding nature of prions is associated to their ability … Continue Reading Study shows that the prion protein plays a role in depression.
Brain inflammation caused by chronic nerve pain alters activity in regions that regulate mood and motivation, suggesting for the first time that a direct biophysical link exists between long-term pain … Continue Reading Researchers link microglia activation triggered by chronic pain to anxiety and depression.
A chemical in the brain typically associated with cognition, movement and reward-motivation behaviour, among others, may also play a role in promoting chronic pain, according to new research from researchers … Continue Reading Researchers map dopamine based chronic-pain pathway in the spinal cord and brain.
Researchers successfully implant and control light-sensitive opioid receptors in mice via optogenetics.
Despite the abuse potential of opioid drugs, they have long been the best option for patients suffering from severe pain. The drugs interact with receptors on brain cells to tamp … Continue Reading Researchers successfully implant and control light-sensitive opioid receptors in mice via optogenetics.
Hyperactivity and social abnormalities are defining characteristics of ADHD and autism, two developmental disorders that parents and scientists around the world are struggling to understand. At the RIKEN Brain Science … Continue Reading Researchers identify protein responsible for regulating dopamine levels in the brain.
A new blood test may more accurately identify blood signatures, or biomarkers, for Parkinson’s disease (PD), according to a new study published in the journal Movement Disorders. The study, conducted … Continue Reading New blood test identifies genetic risk factor for Parkinson’s disease in human studies.
Researchers show for the first time that mitochondria are altered in human model of Parkinson’s disease.
It has long been suspected that the most common mutation linked to both sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease wreaks its havoc by altering the function of mitochondria in neurons that … Continue Reading Researchers show for the first time that mitochondria are altered in human model of Parkinson’s disease.
Antibodies defend the body against bacterial, viral, and other invaders. But sometimes the body makes antibodies that attack healthy cells. In these cases, autoimmune disorders develop. Immune abnormalities in patients … Continue Reading Study identifies psychosis as a quantifiable neurological autoimmune disease.