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Months before their first words, babies’ brains rehearse speech mechanics.

Infants can tell the difference between sounds of all languages until about 8 months of age when their brains start to focus only on the sounds they hear around them. … Continue Reading Months before their first words, babies’ brains rehearse speech mechanics.

Scripps Florida scientists shed new light on nerve cell growth.

Scripps Florida scientists shed new light on nerve cell growth. The study describes how RPM-1 regulates the activity of a single protein known as DLK-1, a protein that regulates neuron development and plays an essential role in axon regeneration. RPM-1 uses PPM-2, an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from a protein thereby altering its function, in combination with ubiquitin ligase activity to directly inhibit DLK-1.

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Discovery of new drug targets for memory impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease.

Discovery of new drug targets for memory impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease. A study from KIST has revealed the novel mechanism of how Alzheimer’s patients might lose their memory. The researchers also propose new therapeutic targets, which include GABA production and release mechanisms in reactive astrocytes for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, we provide a stepping stone for the development of MAO-B inhibitors with long lasting efficacy.

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Study cracks how the brain processes emotions.

Study cracks how the brain processes emotions. Researchers have discovered that fine-grained patterns of neural activity within the orbitofrontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with emotional processing, act as a neural code which captures an individual’s subjective feeling. The findings provide insight into how the brain represents the human’s innermost feelings, what neuroscientists are calling the last frontier of neuroscience, and upend the long-held view that emotion is represented in the brain simply by activation in specialized regions for positive or negative feelings.

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Review of ADHD drug approvals highlights gaps between approval process, long-term safety assessment.

Review of ADHD drug approvals highlights gaps between approval process, long-term safety assessment. Over the last 60 years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 20 medications for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on clinical trials that were not designed to study their long-term efficacy and safety or to detect rare adverse events. The study highlights gaps in how the long-term safety of drugs intended for chronic use in children is assessed as part of the FDA approval process.

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Study shows link between inflammation in maternal blood and schizophrenia in offspring.

Maternal inflammation as indicated by the presence in maternal blood of early gestational C-reactive protein, an established inflammatory biomarker, appears to be associated with greater risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Inflammation has been shown to alter brain development in previous studies, and schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Thus, this study provides an important link between inflammation and schizophrenia and may help the medical community to better understand the biological mechanisms that lead to this disorder.

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