The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the brain, mediating various forms of synaptic plasticity and is implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about … Continue Reading Previously unknown method of neurotransmission identified.
The brain controls all functions in the body and interprets information from the outside world with intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory all governed by the central nervous system. The central … Continue Reading Researchers identify the control mechanism of synapse formation.
Excessive alcohol-use is the third leading risk factor for disease following tobacco and blood pressure. The most important include peripheral neuropathy, brain damage, alcoholic liver disease, and nutritional and metabolic … Continue Reading Hormone and neurotransmitter systems disturbed in alcoholics’ brains.
It is known that the loss or dysfunction of islet β cells in the pancreas results in an imbalance in blood glucose homeostasis, leading to the development of type 2 … Continue Reading Researchers identify new links between nicotine and type 2 diabetes.
In the brain, patterns of neural activity are perfectly balanced. The interplay between activating and inhibitory neurotransmitters ensures that the level of activity stays within the physiological range. Neuronal degeneration … Continue Reading Researchers begin to map neuroprotective pathway after epileptic seizure.
The motivation for natural rewards such as food, sex and exercise, and also of drugs such as nicotine, relies on neurons in the brain’s reward system, based in a brain … Continue Reading Molecular ‘switch’ reduces nicotine’s effect on the brain in animal model.
The serotonin receptors, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. … Continue Reading Researchers identify previously unknown subtypes of 5HT neurons.
Dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia is known to cause severe motor dysfunctions such as slowness of movement, or bradykinesia, as seen in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine binds D1 and D2 receptors … Continue Reading Study identifies the cause of slowness of movement in Parkinson’s disease.
Glutamate is an amino acid with very different functions. In the pancreas, it modulates the activity of the pancreatic ß-cells responsible for insulin production, whereas in the brain it is … Continue Reading Study verifies long-standing hypothesis that glutamate is brain’s energy-source.
Antidepressants are recommended as a first-line treatment of severe depression and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression that persists after conservative measures such as cognitive therapy. Experts recommend against their … Continue Reading Study maps structural brain changes caused by antidepressants.
Synaptic mitochondria are thought to be critical in supporting neuronal energy requirements at the synapse, and bioenergetic failure at the synapse may impair neural transmission and contribute to neurodegeneration. However, … Continue Reading Researchers link impaired mitochondria and a loss of ATP to neurodegeneration.
For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. Numerous studies suggest that … Continue Reading Researchers identify specific neuron-type responsible for alcoholism.
Synapses are specialized, protein-rich cell junctions that are essential for normal brain function and are dysfunctional in many diseases and disorders of the nervous system. Synapses are made up of … Continue Reading Study identifies elusive master regulator of synaptic protein sorting.
Prions are proteins in which the complex molecular three-dimensional folding process has simply gone astray. For reasons not yet understood, the misfolding nature of prions is associated to their ability … Continue Reading Study shows that the prion protein plays a role in depression.
The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of the eye that converts light into nerve impulses. The retina contains small, specialized neurons called bipolar cells that transmit … Continue Reading Researchers discover previously uncharted part of the eye.
Brain inflammation caused by chronic nerve pain alters activity in regions that regulate mood and motivation, suggesting for the first time that a direct biophysical link exists between long-term pain … Continue Reading Researchers link microglia activation triggered by chronic pain to anxiety and depression.