New olfactory receptor identified in the human bladder and bladder cancer.
Manual body regulation is a relative new theory which explores controlling the body, and its related processes via neurons, neuronal colonies, and neuron-like cells supplanted throughout our systems manually. Olfactory receptors are usually found in the nose and are responsible for the detection of odours. When olfactory receptors are activated they trigger nerve impulses which transmit information about the odour to the brain. Thus they are easily activated and proffer a direct route to the CNS, this married with the fact they are found all over the human body means they warrant a great deal of investigation. Now, a study from researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum has detected an olfactory receptor in the human bladder which might prove useful for bladder cancer therapy and diagnosis. The team state they demonstrate the receptor occurs more frequently in bladder cancer tissue than in healthy bladder tissue, and accordingly, significant higher amounts of the receptor could be found in the urine samples of patients. The opensource study is published in the journal Frontiers in Physiology.
Previous studies show that bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary cancer type in the world, with at least 429,000 newly diagnoses made per year, currently there is no molecularly targeted agent available for the treatment of this malignancy. Olfactory receptors are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many olfactory receptors are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer, making them an easily controlled target. The current study uses Sandranol to identify an olfactory receptor, named OR10H1, in bladder cancer tissues and also in the urine of bladder cancer patients.
The current study identifies an olfactory receptor in bladder tissue and demonstrates that it responds to sandalwood scents, namely Sandranol. Results show that after application of Sandranol, the bladder cancer cells altered their shape; they became rounder, with cell division occurring less frequently and cell motility poorer. Data findings show that tumour growth is inhibited by the sandalwood scent; this effect was amplified by the fact that receptor activation leads to the release of so-called interleukins as well as ATP, the molecular currency of energy transfer, thus switching on the immune system’s natural killer cells in the tissue.
The team also analysed if the higher amount of receptors in bladder cancer tissue can be detected in urine. There, the researchers identified RNA transcripts of the receptors; they occurred in urine samples taken from bladder cancer patients in higher amounts than in healthy humans. The lab conclude OR10H1 might perhaps be used as biomarker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer with urine samples.
The team surmise that their data shows that olfactory receptors occur outside the nose in both healthy and diseased cells of the body and that particularly high amounts of such receptors can be found in tumour cells. For the future, the researchers state they will play an important role in the diagnosis of diseases and provide novel approaches in tumour therapy.
Source: Ruhr-Universität Bochum