Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, with much work needed to stem the rise of the superbug. Often, resistance is mediated by genes, which can simply jump from one bacterial population to the next when antibiotics are being used. This is one of the many mechanisms of antibiotic resistance which is causing major concern around the world.
New mode of antibiotic resistance
Now, a study from researchers led by ETH Zurich identifies an additional mechanism responsible for spreading resistance in the intestinal microbiota, without the use of antibiotics. The team states restricting the use of antibiotics, which is an important facet in the fight against antibiotic resistance, is not sufficient to prevent the spread. The opensource study is published in the journal Nature.
Previous studies show the DNA of bacteria is contained in a single circular molecule, called the bacterial chromosome. In addition to the chromosome, bacteria often contain plasmids. These plasmids are small circular DNA molecules which the microbes can pick up from other bacterial cells during conjugation or the environment.
Plasmids often carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes, contributing to the spread of multi-drug resistance. It is a long-held theory the global spread of antibiotic-resistant plasmids is fuelled by antibiotic usage in human and veterinary medicine. The current study shows these bacterial plasmids transfer antibiotic-resistant genes to both the same and different bacterial species without the use of antibiotics.
The current study utilizes mice to demonstrate dormant salmonella can pass their resistance genes in the gut on to other same species bacteria or different species. These species include E. coli found in our normal intestinal flora.
Persistent bacteria or ‘persisters’ are subpopulations of bacteria that can survive antibiotics by reversibly adapting their physiology. Results show these persisitors are very efficient at sharing their resistant plasmid genes as soon as they awaken from their dormant state and encounter other bacteria susceptible to gene transfer.
The lab explains by exploiting their dormant persistent host bacterium in reservoirs, the resistant plasmids can survive for a prolonged period in one host before transferring into other bacteria. They go on to add this speeds up the spread of multi-drug resistant plasmids, they stress this transfer happens regardless of whether antibiotics are present or not.
Vaccination to suppress superbugs
The group suggests vaccination reduces the formation of reservoirs of persistent salmonella bacteria phenotype, as well as subsequent plasmid transfer.
The team surmises they have shown microbiota can pass on multi-drug resistant genes without the presence of antibiotics. For the future, the researchers state they now plan to investigate whether it’s possible to control the spread of resistance in livestock populations with probiotics or with a vaccination against salmonella.
Source: ETH Zurich
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