In male fertility normal sperm cells have an oval-shaped head with a cap-like covering called the acrosome. The acrosome contains enzymes that break down the outer membrane of an egg cell, allowing the sperm to fertilize the egg. One of the causes of male infertility is abnormally shaped sperm. About 60% of the sperm should be normal in size and shape for adequate fertility. The perfect sperm structure is an oval head and long tail, much research covers this aspect of male infertility as-well-as a low sperm count.
In earlier studies the lab discovered the protein, which they named sperm lysozyme-like protein 1 (SLLP1), that has now been shown to form the filaments. The protein is a member of a family of proteins now known to reside inside the acrosome. However, the team had no way to determine the shape and structure of the protein.
To enable this the current study had to capture the protein within a static crystal, cool the crystal to cryogenic temperatures to prevent decay and then blast it with X-rays. By examining how those X-rays were refracted, they could calculate the shape of the protein, somewhat like mapping out a shipwreck with sonar. After many attempts the researchers were able to produce one of the first descriptions of a sperm protein.
The group note that this is an important protein, because it’s the first crystal structure from a protein within the sperm acrosome. They go on to add that it is also the first structure of a mammalian sperm protein with a specific oocyte-side binding partner characterized. To the researchers knowledge, only nine proteins specifically obtained from mammalian sperm have known structures.
The results show that one of the major proteins that is abundant in the acrosome, in the arterior region of the sperm head, is crystallizing into filaments. The team now postulate they’re involved in penetrating the egg, which leads to a whole new set of questions and new hypotheses about the very fine structure of molecular events during fertilization.
The lab surmise that new understanding of the structure will now act as a map for the global medical community exploring how fertilization occurs. They go on to conclude that at the very fundamental level, understanding that fine molecular architecture leads them to be able to posit new functions for this family of proteins discovered in the acrosome.
Michelle Petersen is the founder of Healthinnovations, having worked in the health and science industry for over 21 years, which includes tenure within the NHS and Oxford University. Healthinnovations is a publication that has reported on, influenced, and researched current and future innovations in health for the past decade.
Michelle has been picked up as an expert writer for Informa publisher’s Clinical Trials community, as well as being listed as a blog source by the world’s leading medical journals, including the acclaimed Nature-Springer journal series.
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Most recently the Texas A&M University covered The Top 10 Healthinnovations series on their site with distinguished Professor Stephen Maren calling the inclusion of himself and his team on the list a reflection of “the hard work and dedication of my students and trainees”.
Michelle Petersen’s copy was used in the highly successful marketing campaign for the mega-hit film ‘Jumanji: The Next Level, starring Jack Black, Karen Gilian, Kevin Hart and Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson. Michelle Petersen’s copywriting was part of the film’s coverage by the Republic TV network. Republic TV is the most-watched English language TV channel in India since its inception in 2017.
An avid campaigner in the fight against child sex abuse and trafficking, Michelle is a passionate humanist striving for a better quality of life for all humans by helping to provide traction for new technologies and techniques within healthcare.